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Published: Thursday 10 October, 2013

shopping online shopping online ?Cost Catalyst Prepares to Take on Power

Unlike other methods of converting nitrogen oxides NOx, the lowcost nanoparticlebased catalysts developed by Lyman group do not use ammonia.

NOx is a generic term for nitrogen oxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2. The oxides, which are responsible for smog and acid rain, are produced when nitrogen and oxygen react in the air during combustion, especially at high temperatures.

The use of catalysts for pollution control in power plants is not new. A technique called selective catalytic reduction SCR can convert 95 percent of NOx to nitrogen and water with a catch.

SCR requires another toxic gas, ammonia, to carry out the shopping online reduction, says Rick Herman, a senior research scientist who works with Lyman. addition, these catalysts only perform well at high temperatures. the best preparation technique

Lyman and Herman sought first to improve the performance of a platinumrhodium nanoparticlebased catalyst that uses hydrogen, rather than ammonia, as a reducing agent. This catalyst works at much lower temper shopping online atures. candidate in chemical engineering working with Lyman.

To obtain the desired microstructure, researchers sequentially impregnated an alumina support with aqueous solutions of platinum and rhodium chlorides. Then they applied a series of t shopping online hermal treatments to convert the metal chlorides into active bimetallic nanoparticles.

procedure was chosen so that the desired microstructure would be achieved under reaction conditions, says Dimick.

When the researchers examined the prepared catalysts with Lehigh highresolution aberrationcorrected scanning transmission electron microscope, they found nanoparticles with an average diameter of 2 nanometers nm welldispersed on the alumina support. One nm is one billionth of a meter.

Insitu Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the NO chemical bond in a catalyst containing 5percent rhodium was broken as soon as the molecule made contact with the nanoparticle. In a catalyst of 10percent rhodium, however, the NO molecules tended to adhere to clusters of rhodium atoms present on the surface, which could potentially inhibit the desired reaction. Catalyst performance data also showed that the catalyst containing only 5percent rhodium exhibited a much higher activity.

Rhodium, however, is rare and expensive. It now trades at around $2,400 per troy ounce after exceeding $10,000 in 2008. To reduce NOx emissions more cheaply, the researchers turned to cobalt, which is 900 times less expensive than rhodium.

is also capable of breaking the NO bond, says Lyman. forms a solid solution with platinum at low concentrations and finds its way to the surface of a nanoparticle under reaction conditions. preparation of cobaltplatinum catalysts is almost identical to that of rhodiumplatinum. The researchers merely substituted metal nitrates for chlorides.

While all catalysts containing less than 5percent cobalt were found to be capable of reducing NOx to nitrogen and water vapor, the 2percent cobalt catalyst performed best. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the 2percent catalyst was the only one capable of immediately breaking the NO bond, says Dimick. shopping online